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ABC of metal bending

ABC of metal bending


Air Bending Is where the material is bent but the material does not ‘bottom out’ or touch the bottom of the tool. It is most commonly used in press braking material into a vee block.

Arc The curved portion of a bend.

Arc Length The length of the curved portion of a bend. This can be measured around the outside of the bend, along the centerline (C/L) or the inside.

Asymmetric Beams A non-symmetrical (equal) beam, which is produced by TATA Steel for floor beams. The bottom flange is wider than the top and a diamond pattern sits proud on the top smaller flange.


Backwall The outside of a pipe or section, during or after bending.

Bending Moment A bending moment exists in a structural element when a moment is applied to the element so that the element bends. Moments and torques are measured as a force multiplied by a distance so they have as unit newton-ms (N·m) , or pounds-foot force (lbf·ft).

Bending Procedure A written procedure detailing the steps an operator takes to produce a bend.

Buckling Definite folds, creases or wrinkles formed on the surface of the pipe or the tube during the bending operation. (Solution..use a heavier gauge or smaller section)


Camber A slight bend in a bar designed to compensate for deflection when load is applied.

Centre to Centre distance The distance between the calculated centres. E.g. to describe the centreline distance between the two legs of a ‘U’ bend.

Centre-line radius (CLR) The distance from the centre of curvature to the centre-line (axis) of the section. (E.g. a pipe or a section)

Chord The straight distance measured between any two points on a circle or bend.

Coining A process where a force is applied to material to force it into a die.

Cold Bending The bending of sections pipes at ambient temperature.

Compression force The force on the inside of the neutral axis during bending trying to reduce the length of an element. This also causes the thickening of material on the inside face.

Compound Bend A curved bar with more than one radius in the same plane.

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